Successful learning – a must read for all staff!

Video 1:  Six Strategies for Effective Learning. The Learning Scientists.

This video from the Learning Scientists – working with the Memorize Academy – give students (and teachers) some very clear, practical advice based on the findings of cognitive psychology.  It makes the abstract ideas of interleaving and dual coding come alive.  In my view, if students are taught to adopt these strategies, they will see that effort applied to a successful strategy leads to success – a process which might foster a growth mindset as learning seems more possible.

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Downloadable resources – http://www.learningscientists.org/downloadable-materials/

Video 2. Eduardo Briceño: The Learning Zone and the Performance Zone.

I heard about this from Guy Claxton during his talk at the Bryanston Education Summit 2017.

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Guy was arguing that the Learning/Performance zones –  which are both essential to learning but require us to switch between them –  might constitute a more helpful model than growth and fixed mindsets which suggest a more permanent inherent state – a problematic idea, often unhelpfully value-laden; certainly hard to action.

It seems to me that Briceño’s idea of  Learning and Performance zones links to the roles of formative and summative assessment.  Just as he argues for more time spent in the Learning Zone, Daisy Christodoulou, Dylan Wiliam et al, advocate giving greater weight to formative assessment.

Crucially, Briceño is suggesting that the Learning Zone requires students to focus on deliberate practice on specific skills.  Although the zones embed the concept of GM, rather than replacing it, I find it’s a more tangible, technical, actionable concept than growth mindset altogether.  He is also very clear about the need for a low-stakes environment for the Learning Zone – just as with formative assessment.

Here’s an extract from the transcript.

” The learning zone is when our goal is to improve. Then we do activities designed for improvement,concentrating on what we haven’t mastered yet, which means we have to expect to make mistakes, knowing that we will learn from them. That is very different from what we do when we’re in our performance zone, which is when our goal is to do something as best as we can, to execute.Then we concentrate on what we have already mastered and we try to minimize mistakes.

Both of these zones should be part of our lives, but being clear about when we want to be in each of them, with what goal, focus and expectations, helps us better perform and better improve. The performance zone maximizes our immediate performance, while the learning zone maximizes our growth and our future performance. The reason many of us don’t improve much despite our hard work is that we tend to spend almost all of our time in the performance zone. This hinders our growth, and ironically, over the long term, also our performance.” 

So how can we spend more time in the learning zone?

  • First, we must believe and understand that we can improve, what we call a growth mindset.
  • Second, we must want to improve at that particular skill. There has to be a purpose we care about, because it takes time and effort.
  • Third, we must have an idea about how to improve, what we can do to improve, not how I used to practice the guitar as a teenager, performing songs over and over again, but doing deliberate practice.
  • And fourth, we must be in a low-stakes situation, because if mistakes are to be expected,then the consequence of making them must not be catastrophic, or even very significant. A tightrope walker doesn’t practice new tricks without a net underneath, and an athlete wouldn’t set out to first try a new move during a championship match.

Both videos and the ideas in the them are helpful in suggesting practical strategies for improving learning.

This article by Eduardo Briceño is also a good read:

https://ww2.kqed.org/mindshift/2015/11/16/growth-mindset-clearing-up-some-common-confusions/

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Importantly, it’s the combination of the ideas in these videos that I think makes for powerful learning.  If Learning Zone practice doesn’t also deliberately embrace the technical business of explicit knowledge building, it won’t be as effective.  I know some people will interpret the Learning Zone as being in opposition to ‘rote learning’ for example.  They’re wrong.  Learning by heart in some disciplines is indeed the very kind of Learning Zone activity that, later, can support success in the Performance Zone with, for example, solving complex problems in high-stakes situations.

See this post for further ideas:  FACE It A Formula for Learning.

Blog post from @TeacherHead.

A reading list: learning, teaching & professional development

Harry Fletcher Wood:

On request, this is a list of good reads on learning, teaching, assessment, professional development and organisational culture; I’ve also added a few books not directly related to education I’ve found useful.  In each category I’ve chosen three books or articles I’ve found:

  • Well-evidenced or well thought through
  • Clear and well-written (at least relatively)
  • Formative and thought-provoking

All links to journal articles are open access; all links to books lead to Amazon.

Learning

Willingham, D. (2009) Why don’t students like school? A cognitive scientist answers questions about how the mind works and what it means for the classroom. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Daniel Willingham summarises how thinking and learning happen clearly, succinctly and usably.  He takes experiments (are we more likely to remember a piano if the cue is its weight or its sound), explains the psychological principles at work (context cues are critical) and provides principles for teachers (ways to structure a lesson around stories).

Nuthall, G. (2007). The hidden lives of learners. 1st ed. Wellington, N.Z.: New Zealand Council for Educational Research

Graham Nutthall went to amazing lengths to understand student learning.  By recording every word spoken, written and heard by individual students during a term, and comparing them with teachers’ goals, he was able to learn how many times students need to encounter a concept to learn it, the effect of peer culture and why better off students learn more.

Sweller, J., van Merriënboer J. J., Paas F. G. (1998). Cognitive architecture and instructional design. Educational Psychology Review, 10, 251-296.

John Sweller and co review Cognitive Load Theory, defining three kinds of cognitive load: intrinsic, complicated material; extraneous, poorly designed instruction; and germane, complication which depresses performance but increases learning.  The authors offer a range of techniques which put these principles to work, like varying practice, avoiding splitting attention, and using dual coding (linking words and images).

Teaching

Coe, R., Aloisi, C, Higgins, S., Elliot Major, L. (2014) What makes great teaching? Review of the Underpinning Research. Sutton Trust.

Rob Coe and his team summarise research on great teaching, highlighting effective instruction, pedagogical content knowledge, a positive classroom climate and efficient classroom management.  For variety, they also highlight practices which don’t work, including lavish praise, discovery learning and focusing on confidence before content.

Berliner, D. (1988) The Development of Expertise in Pedagogy. Charles W. Hunt Memorial Lecture presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education (New Orleans, LA, February 17-20, 1988)

David Berliner reviews the stages in a teacher’s development from novice to expert, drawing on studies he’d conducted to show how experts work more fluidly, seeing differently and, eventually, end up working ‘arationally’.  Berliner concludes with suggestions for teacher educators, noting the value of routines and of evaluating experts and novices differently.  More about teacher expertise here.

Ball, D. Thames, M., Phelps, G. (2008) Content Knowledge for Teaching: What Makes It Special? Journal of Teacher Education 59(5) 389-407

Deborah Ball and her colleagues refined Lee Shulman’s definition of pedagogical content knowledge, identifying sub-domains including Common Content Knowledge – things which are generally known; Knowledge of Content and Students – how students are likely to respond; and Knowledge of Content and Teaching – effective ways to sequence representations and problems.  More about these ideas here.

Assessment

Wiliam, D. (2011). Embedded formative assessment. 1st ed. Bloomington (In.): Solution Tree.

Dylan Wiliam explains the five strategies of formative assessment in a clear, evidence-informed and practical way, providing a useful toolkit of both ideas and practical techniques.  I suspect I’ve referred to this book more than any other as a teacher.

Sadler, D.R. (1989) Formative assessment and the design of instructional systems. Instruction Science 18, 119-144.

Sadler explains how feedback and self-monitoring should work: the teacher sharing criteria and exemplar for success and then leading students to experience and understand these criteria and helping them to close the gap between criteria and their own performances.

Christodoulou, D. (2017) Making Good Progress: The Future of Assessment for Learning. Oxford, OUP.

Daisy Christodoulou’s explanation of effective formative and summative assessment is impeccably clear.  She dismantles each concept, shows the limits to how they have been applied and offers clear directions for what we should do next.  An instruction manual for designing effective assessments.

Teacher development

Ericsson, A., Pool, R. (2016) Peak: Secrets from the new science of expertise. Bodley Head, London

K. Anders Ericsson reviews the research on expertise and what makes deliberate practice different from any other kind of practice including its focus, feedback and the sequence we follow.  Deliberate practice is more complicated (and more limited) than he perhaps suggests, but this book offers thought-provoking material for the design of teacher education.

TNTP (2014) Fast Start: Training better teachers faster, with focus, practice and feedback

Teacher training doesn’t work, TNTP concluded.  Teachers who don’t master basic skills early never do master them, nor do they get better.  TNTP transformed their programmes to focus narrowly on key skills, developed through practice and coaching.  There’s much to learn here about the very start of a teacher’s career.

Grossman, P., Compton, C., Igra, D., Ronfeldt, M., Shahan, E., Williamson, P. (2009) Teaching Practice: A Cross-Professional Perspective. Teachers College Record (111, 9), 2055–2100

Comparing the preparation of priests, teachers and clinical psychologists Pam Grossman and her colleagues identified three key aspects: representations highlighting aspects of practice, decomposition of that practice into smaller units, and approximations which can be practised by trainees.  They also noted that we spend a lot more time practising preactive work (like planning) than interactive (like discussion).

Organisational culture

Heath, C., Heath, D. (2010) Switch: How to change things when change is hard. Random House.

The Heath brothers summarise the research around change around three characters: the elephant, our instincts; the rider, our rational mind; and the path, our contexts.  This is an invitation to work with the grain of human behaviour, and a toolbox of ways to do so.  More about the book here.

Gawande, A. (2012) Big Med: Restaurant chains have managed to combine quality control, cost control, and innovation. Can health care? New Yorker, 13 August

The Cheesecake Factory (an American restaurant chain) has standardised food production, offering high quality at affordable prices.  Healthcare in the US has failed to do the same thing: it is expensive and results are uneven.  Atul Gawande eplores how this might change and the barriers it faces: what happens when you try to standardise knee surgery, for example?

Kraft, M., Papay, J. (2014) Can Professional Environments in Schools Promote Teacher Development? Explaining Heterogeneity in Returns to Teaching Experience Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 36(4) 476-500

What makes great teaching?  Kraft and Papay show that the kind of school you teach in makes a big difference: in schools rated by their teachers as better professional environments, teachers keep getting better – and student results follow.

Personal development

Loehr, J., Schwartz, T. (2001) The Making of a Corporate Athlete. Harvard Business Review

Awful title, worthwhile points.  Firstly, work-life balance is not just about reducing pressure: athletes stress their muscles in order to develop them; likewise we have to build physical, emotional, mental and spiritual strength.  Secondly, it’s the alternation between stress and relaxation that build athletes’ muscles and our capacity – and its habits and rituals that help us alternate successfully.

Covey, S. (2003). The seven habits of highly effective people. 1st ed. Carlsbad, CA: Hay House.

Another awful title, more worthwhile points: Steven Covey shows how you can identify a set of priorities and stick them: one of the most useful things I’ve ever learned.  More about the book here.

Broader perspectives on education

Berger, R. (2003) An Ethic of Excellence: Building a Culture of Craftsmanship with Students. Heinemann

Ron Berger is a carpenter and an elementary school teacher.  This book shows how he brings the idea of craftsmanship into the classroom, designing authentic projects, creating a culture of craftsmanship and of continual improvement.  More about the book here.

Crehan, L. (2016) Cleverlands: The secrets behind the success of the world’s education superpowers. London, Unbound.

Lucy Crehan decided to discover what countries with successful education systems were really like.  Visiting Finland, Canada and Shanghai, among others, she lived with teachers, taught in schools and interviewed parents.  The result is a nuanced examination of the contribution made by schools, parents and teachers and a reasoned argument as to what we can learn from this.

Willis, P. (1978). Learning to Labour: How working class kids get working class jobs. Ashgate, Farnham.

Paul Willis’s book is a dense, powerful book which records the lives of a handful of boys with whom he spent much of their final year in school.  He looks at the culture of resistance ‘the lads’ develop, how they differentiate themselves from the school, and the consequences for their working lives.

Broader perspectives on everything

Gawande, A. (2015) Being Mortal: Illness, Medicine and What Matters in the End. Profile.

An immensely powerful book looks at how we think about and prepare for death – our own and others’ – and how we might do so better.

Hayek, F. (1944/2001) The Road to Serfdom. Oxford: Routledge.

In a short, exquisitely-articulated book, Friedrich Hayek persuaded me of the limits of central planning and provision.

Haidt, J. (2013). The righteous mind: Why good people are divided by politics and religion. New York: Vintage Books.

The subtitle says it all: if we want to understand the sources of much of our disagreement, and so to discuss more productively, this book gets us a long way.

Further reading recommendations

I’m working through Paul Kirschner’s list of seminal papers in educational psychology.

Rob Coe has written an excellent reading list here ‘What’s worth reading for teachers interested in research?’

I also have a longlist from which I worked to create this list, if that’s of interest.

Research evidence – where to start?

A common question we receive as a Research School is ‘where could we start as a school to engage with research evidence?‘ It is a tricky question; of course, the answer is ‘it depends on what questions you are looking to answer’, but that doesn’t make for a satisfactory response! Happily, this week, once more there was a great sharing by bloggers who did a excellent job of synthesising some great sources of research evidence and useful reading for teachers.

First, Tom Sherrington, known as @teacherhead on Twitter, has done a cracking job of curating the best of freely available reading on the web. See his blog entitled: Teaching and Learning Research Summaries: A collection for easy access’

 

Also, this week, Harry Fletcher-Wood, on Twitter as @HFletcherWood, had the same idea, which proved equally as fruitful. See his blog entitled: ‘A reading list: learning, teaching & professional development’.

Both blogs reminded me of a very popular blog by Professor Rob Coe (you can find him on Twitter as @ProfCoe) on the same topic. It is well worth sharing the same blog for those who missed it, or forgot its goodness: ‘What is Worth Reading for Teachers Interested in Research?’. It does what it says on the tin!

One positive development in the reporting on education in the last few years is that the likes of TES and Schools Week have reflected a greater interest in research evidence. This TES article by Nick Rose (@Nick_J_Rose) – Are these the 7 pillars of classroom practice? – is a great example; or this, by Stuart Kime (@StuartKime) in Schools Week – ‘Best education research of 2016 for schools‘.

You may wish to scour some well established sources, like the EEF Toolkit, the IEE ‘Best Evidence in Brief’ fortnightly updates, or the excellent Learning Scientists website.

So, if you are thinking, ‘where can I start?’ if I am looking to engage with research evidence, then the links above should keep you busy and prove fruitful

Alex Quigley, Director of Huntington Research School

Cognitive Load Theory – every teacher should know this!

Cognitive Load Theory

It was around 18 months ago that I first came across Cognitive Load Theory (CLT). Recently CLT has gained a lot of traction on social media; helped by the fact that Dylan Wiliam cited it as the most important thing for teachers to know earlier this year:

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Oliver Caviglioli also recently created one of his fantastic illustrative summaries on Sweller’s book and this reignited the CLT flame for me. A few weeks ago I posted about CLT on the Society for Education and Training’s Blog, in an attempt to further promote what I and many others consider to be an essential learning theory. I thought I’d share it on my blog in an attempt to reach a few more practitioners, so here it is:

 

What is the one learning theory that I feel all teachers should be made aware of?

Cognitive Load Theory (CLT) – Coined in 1988 by John Sweller, this theory posits that our working memory is only able to hold a small amount of information at any one time and that instructional methods should avoid overloading it in order to maximise learning (Sweller, 1988).

 

Why have I chosen this theory?

We’ve all been in learning sessions where the teacher has whizzed through the content, leaving us with little to remember. We’ve also been in those sessions where the content is so complex that we leave more confused than when we entered. CLT goes some way to explaining why this happens and what we, as teachers, can do to maximise the learning of individuals within our classrooms.
Building on the work of Baddeley and Hitch (1974), CLT views human cognitive architecture as the working memory and long term memory. Put simply, the working memory has a limited capacity and consists of multiple components that are responsible for directing attention and coordinating cognitive processes. Long term memory on the other hand, has an endless capacity for storage and works with working memory to retrieve information (Baddeley, 2003).

What can teachers do to reduce cognitive load?

  • Activate prior knowledge before sharing new information with students – Our long term memory is said to have a number of organised patterns of knowledge (known as schema). Each schema acts as a single item in working memory, so can be handled easier than having lots of new, isolated information. Through retrieving information from the long term memory via quizzes, visual aids and discussions, students can bring crucial information to working memory (see image 1) and assimilate new information to build upon what they already know (Baddeley, 2003). Activating prior knowledge is also supported in the work of Marzano, Gaddy and Dean (2000), who found a substantial improvement in achievement (0.59ES). Furthermore, retrieval practice has shown to strengthen our retention of the information (Wenger, Thompson and Bartling, 1980) – a win win!

  • Use visual and verbal information to present information to students – This has nothing to do with the infamous ‘learning styles’, rather empirical research suggests that our working memory has two points of entry (Chandler and Sweller, 1992). One accepts auditory information, whilst the other visual. If the auditory and visual information correspond to one another, then the burden on working memory is far less than using one pathway alone. Image 1 shows the effect of using one pathway to working memory, whereas image 2 shows the use of both. However, please note that if the text and visual information are not clearly integrated, then it could have adverse effects on learning (Chandler and Sweller, 1992).

  • Use worked examples and models to support learning – There are a wealth of studies that have shown the positive impact of using worked examples to enhance learning (Chandler and Sweller, 1991). According to Clark, Nguyen and Sweller (2006, p.190), ‘a worked example is a step-by-step demonstration of how to perform a task or how to solve a problem’. These steps provide learners with direction and support to create mental models of how to tackle a problem/task, or what ‘good’ looks like. Discovery or problem-based learning on the other hand can be burdensome to working memory due to learners having insufficient prior knowledge to draw upon to support their learning. Moreover, the vast amount of information they have to consider in completing work independently can result in a struggle to direct their attention. As learners develop a greater understanding of the topic, elements of the worked or modelled examples can be ‘faded’ (removed) to foster greater independence.

Worked Example

 

In summary, regardless of one’s philosophical predisposition, I argue that all teachers need to have an awareness of the potential benefits and limitations of the ways in which they present learning opportunities for learners. CLT and the associated empirical research provides us with an understanding of how we process, organise and store information most effectively and for this reason, all teachers should acquire a basic understanding of the premise.

Blog by @FurtherEdagogy

References
Baddeley, A.D. (2003). Working memory: looking back and looking forward. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 4, p.829-839.

Baddeley, A.D. and Hitch, G. (1974). Working Memory. Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 8, p.47-89.

Chandler, P. and Sweller, J. (1991). Cognitive Load Theory and the Format of Instruction. Cognition and Instruction, 8 (4), p. 293-332.

Chandler, P. and Sweller, J. (1992). The split-attention effect as a factor in the design of instruction. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 62 (2), p.233–246.

Clark, R.C., Nguyen, F. and Sweller, J. (2006). Efficiency in learning: evidence-based guidelines to manage cognitive load. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.

Marzano, R.J., Gaddy, B.B. and Dean, C. (2000). What works in classroom instruction. Aurora, CO: Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning.

Sweller, J. (1988). Cognitive Load during Problem Solving: Effects on Learning. Cognitive Science, 12, p.257-285.

Wenger, S.K., Thompson, P. and Bartling, C.A. (1980). Recall facilitates subsequent recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 6 (2), p.135-144.

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