The best list of research links – brilliant!

The go-bag

Here, the #CogSciSci community has brought together a whole bunch of blogs, articles and research to help you answer the question “Why are you doing that?” This is far from an exhaustive list but instead aims to find writings that give a good rationale behind the choice explanation of particular areas of cognitive science and how they can be applied to the classroom.

The idea started with this blog by A Common Biologist, looking at ways cognitive science mutates in schools. It’s important to realise that two very different areas of research impact upon the classroom: education research and cognitive science research. Education research takes place in the classroom, with well-designed studies having large sample sizes and well designed control groups to monitor the effect of any intervention. The results from education research tend to be quite hazy, owing to the difficulty in isolating a cause for a particular effect once in the classroom environment. Cognitive science research, on the other hand, is laboratory based, giving researchers a considerable amount of control over the subjects (their environment, their attention etc.) and so teaches us a considerable amount about how we learn. The downside is that results from cognitive science studies will always require a certain amount of interpretation before they are used in a classroom setting.

Here, the ideas of cognitive science are introduced, and teachers/educators then go on to explain how they are using some of these findings within their classroom, altering their practice to become more ‘research-informed’. This list is far from exhaustive and both Adam Boxer and Craig Barton have excellent research lists with their own commentaries.

If you have any questions that you want answered please send them to cogscisci@gmail.com.


THE BASICS OF COGNITIVE SCIENCE AND MEMORY

“How do our brains work?” answered by Efrat Furst.

“What are all these fancy terms to do with memory that you keep using?” answered by Elizabeth and Robert Bjork whilst discussing how desirable difficulties can improve learning.

“What on earth is working memory?” answered by Professor Susan Gathercole and Dr Tracy Alloway, discussing what it is, its limitations, how it changes and how you can support students to learn in spite of their limited working memories.

“What is a schema?” answered by Greg Ashman.

“Do students remember what they learn in school?” answered by Daniel Willingham, drawing on education research and cognitive science to explain why our memory is an incredible but fallible resource.

“Why do students forget things?” answered by Jemma Sherwood who discusses how to design lessons with memory in mind.

“What is the ‘forgetting curve’?” answered by Durrington Research School.

“Is forgetting a vital part of remembering?” answered by Dalmeet Singh Chawla who interviews a range of researchers from neurobiology who point out that if we remembered everything, our brains would be far more inefficient.

“What will improve a student’s memory?” answered by Daniel Willingham, giving examples of methods that work and those that don’t when helping students commit ideas to memory.

“How does research into our memories affect teaching?” answered by Craig Barton, whose commentary on memory research (particularly that of Elizabeth and Robert Bjork) shows that memory lies at the heart of retrieval, interleaving and spacing.

“What are neuromyths?” answered by Thomas Moran, listing the 10 most common misconceptions about the brain. Do we only use 10% of it? Do we have preferred learning styles? Is your mental capacity something you are born with? No, to all of the above.

Remember also that we have an entire module on the basics of cognitive science here.


COGNITIVE LOAD THEORY AND LEARNING

“Can somebody explain simply how cognitive load theory applies to the classroom?” answered by Adam Boxer, who simplifies the theory for practical usage by teachers.

“How can I take into account cognitive load theory in the classroom?” answered by Blake Harvard, who introduces the idea of ‘element interactivity’ as a consideration for when trying to manage the cognitive load.

“What is the difference between learning and performance?” and “What is a desirable difficulty” both answered by Nick Soderstrom. The learning vs. performance argument is a crucial one for teachers to understand and has huge implications for how we assess the ‘understanding’ of students within a lesson.

“Aren’t cognitive load theory and the idea of desirable difficulties diametrically opposite?” answered by Blake Harvard, who tries to reconcile the need for simplifying (from cognitive load theory) and the need to challenge students (from desirable difficulties). A fascinating insight into how to understand ideas from cognitive science when they initially seem to point in opposite directions.

“Why are some things easy to learn and others are so hard?” answered by Mirjam Neelen and Paul Kirschner, looking at David Geary’s work into biologically primary and secondary knowledge, an idea that aims to explain why we can learn to understand facial expressions much more easily than we can understand chemistry.

“Why can we learn some things naturally from our environment but need instruction to understand others?” answered by David Didau, again looking at Geary’s work, but thinking about the relationship to explicit instruction and discovery learning. Why do we discover the talent for speech, but discovery approaches to reading are less effective?

“Why do students think they understand, when they don’t?” answered by Daniel Willingham, demonstrating why ‘familiarity fools our mind into thinking we know more than we do’.

“Why do they seem so confident they’re right, but they’re wrong?” answered by Kendra Cherry, exploring the Dunning-Kruger effect.


SPACING, INTERLEAVING AND RETRIEVAL PRACTICE: THE BASICS

“What is spacing?” answered by Daniel Willingham.

“What’s the difference between spacing, interleaving and retrieval? Are they desirable difficulties?” answered by Nick Soderstrom.

“What is retrieval practice?” answered by Efrat Furst.

Remember that we have an entire module on retrieval practice here.


KNOWLEDGE AND EXPERT TEACHING

“Can’t they just google it?” E.D. Hirsch explains why knowledge is a cornerstone of our understanding of the world.

“Why is knowledge important?” answered by Daniel Willingham, who shows how ‘knowledge brings more knowledge’.

“Why does everyone keep talking about Rosenshine?” answered by Tom Sherrington, who explores why the principles in Barak Rosenshine’s ‘Principles of Instruction’ are so useful in the classroom.

“What are Rosenshine’s principles?” answered by Mark Enser.

“Can’t we just teach skills?” No, explains David Didau.

“Can’t we just teach skills (number 2)?” Daniel Willingham explains why comprehension can’t be taught as a skill in isolation as it relies on knowledge of the subject matter that you’re reading about.


WITHIN THE CLASSROOM:

PLANNING AND INTERVENTIONS

“Why don’t you have a lesson plan?” answered by Bob Pritchard, who uses cognitive science as the basis to explain why he plans for a longer period of time than simply one lesson (and hence doesn’t have a lesson plan: here are some examples of when he probably did have one…).

“What interventions can I use to help those struggling students?” answered by Ruth Walker, who argues that we shouldn’t focus on interventions to specific groups but instead on the overall quality of teaching to all students.

“How can cognitive science help in the planning of the curriculum?” answered by Ruth Walker, drawing together ideas about schema, memory, hinterland and the true meaning of interleaving to create a better curriculum.

“Can you give me an example of interleaving within the curriculum?” answered by Ian Taylor, who uses ‘teaching by contrast’ as a way of ensuring the links are made between ideas within a topic instead of teaching each idea in a single lesson.

“What is mastery learning? And what isn’t mastery learning?” answered by Daisy Christodoulou.

DIRECT INSTRUCTION VS. DISCOVERY

“Why aren’t they discovering this for themselves?” answered by Paul Kirschner, John Sweller and Richard Clark in one of the must-read papers for understanding one of the fiercest arguments in education.

“Why are you explaining the concept rather than letting them do problem-solving?” answered by Greg Ashman, whose research indicates novices perform better when explicitly taught in the first instance. This study contrasts the predictions of cognitive load theory and productive failure.

SLOP (Shed Loads Of Practice) AND THE EFFECT OF SUCCESS ON MOTIVATION

“Why are they doing SLOP (shed loads of practice) in your lessons?” answered by the learning scientists, who link to and comment on the best ideas about what deliberate practice is and why it is so powerful.

“I don’t like the idea of SLOP, convince me otherwise,” answered by Niki Kaiser who uses her own experiences to show how she came around to the idea of giving students extensive practice.

“Why is practice so important?” answered by Daniel Willingham, discussing the balance between ‘practice makes perfect’ and student motivation.

“Why does success lead to motivation and not the other way around?” answered by Carl Hendrick, giving a motivational background as to why SLOP is effective for all students.

“How can reducing the cognitive load lead to more motivated students?” answered by Greg Ashman who uses cognitive load theory to help students see that is is the ‘process of getting better at something that is motivating’.

“Is interleaved practice better than blocked practice (in maths)?” answered by Doug Rohrer, Robert Dedrick and Pooja Agarwal, exploring the differences between giving practice in distinct blocks (as would be common practice in a curriculum split into defined topics per lesson) and interleaving practice within a mathematics setting.

“How big should spacing gaps be?” answered by Damian Benney, who shares his practice in planning spaced homework, giving reasoning behind his choice of gaps.

Remember we have an entire module on designing practice sets here.

PRACTICALS

“How can I reduce the cognitive load of practical sessions?” answered by Adam Boxer, introducing the idea of the slow practical, a crucial read for new science teachers.

“Isn’t real science like discovery learning?” answered by Bill Wilkinson, drawing on his research experience to explain why ‘real scientists’ aren’t doing discovery as might be assumed.

ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING

“Why aren’t you doing more AfL?” David Didau explains why we should be cautious about AfL given the issues with performance vs. learning.

“How should I be using AfL (assessment for learning) in the classroom” a symposium of ideas from Adam Boxer, Ruth Walker, Niki Kaiser, Deep Ghataura, Ben Rogers, Matt Perks and Dylan Wiliam.

“How can I use multiple choice questions in the classroom?” answered by Blake Harvard, giving a guide to best practice in creating MCQs.

BOOKLETS AND VISUALISERS

“Why would you want to use booklets?” answered by Adam Boxer, giving reasons behind his choice to move to a booklet model that come from cognitive science and the need to reduce teacher workload.

“But really, why would you want to use booklets?” answered by a guest post on Adam Robbins’ blog, with a very useful set of responses to the possible questions from sceptical colleagues.

“How did you write that booklet?” answered by Ruth Walker. It’s best for her to answer it since we’re probably using her ones anyway.

“Why are you using a visualiser? Isn’t that from the 90’s?” answered in a twitter thread by Mark Wilkinson, giving a whole heap of suggestions for how to use a visualiser.

“How can I use a visualiser with a class? What on earth does Show-Call mean?” an example of Courtney Betar from TLAC. The TLAC website has a huge amount of video evidence of great techniques to try in the classroom.

“Why are you using a visualiser and a booklet?” answered by Ben Newmark, bringing together the benefits of booklets and visualisers (in a post that surprisingly doesn’t demonstrate his incredible handwriting).

COMPLETION PROBLEMS, WORKED EXAMPLES, NON-EXAMPLES

“I know they reduce the cognitive load but aren’t completion problems a bit easy?” answered by Ben Rogers, who gives examples of how completion problems can be used as scaffolding to reduce the cognitive load and get students to focus on the subject matter at hand.

“Which is better: problem-solving or worked examples?” answered by Greg Ashman, in a post that attempts to resolve the conflict that exists between desirable difficulties and cognitive load theory.

“What is a non-example?” answered by Ben Rogers.

CALCULATIONS

“Why do you think practice supports the lower attaining students?” answered by Adam Robbins, who explores how he uses SLOP calculation sheets to ensure opportunities for success for all learners.

“How do you teach the use of equations?” answered by Pritesh Raichura, giving a scaffolding method to ensure all students can be successful in performing calculations.

“Why did you design your calculation sheet like that?” answered by Tom Millichamp, going into detail about each of his choices that he makes when creating a resource.

DUAL CODING

“What on earth is dual coding?” explained by Rufus Johnstone.

“How can I use dual coding in science? Isn’t it just pictures?” answered by Pritesh Raichura, who gives simple, implementable examples of what dual coding truly is within the science classroom.

“Can I see more examples of dual coding please?” Gethyn Jones shows how he uses dual coding (and always has done) to teach SUVAT in Physics, as it’s a topic that naturally lends itself to dual coding, rather than it needing to be shoe-horned in.

“How can I change the layout of materials to ease cognitive load?” answered by Ben Rogers, who has excellent posts on the layout of materialson the drawing of diagrams in science, and a post full of examples.

THE TESTING EFFECT

What is the testing effect?” answered by Efrat Furst.

“Doesn’t all this testing just stress students out?” Blake Harvard explains why testing actually reduces test stress.

KNOWLEDGE ORGANISERS

“How can I use knowledge organisers?” answered by the Learning Scientists.

“Can you give an example of using knowledge organisers?” answered by Adam Robbins, who kindly answers the question and gives out his knowledge organisers for science.

“When shouldn’t I use knowledge organisers?” answered by Kris Boulton, writing why they are less applicable to maths (and arguing they often shouldn’t be called knowledge organisers at all).

“What are some of the limitations of knowledge organisers?” answered by Helen Skelton, who uses the idea of schemas to show where knowledge organisers can fit into teaching.

DIFFERENTIATION

“Why aren’t you differentiating?” answered by a guest post on Adam Boxer’s blog that should really make you think about why you’re asked to print off three different coloured worksheets.

“Why aren’t you differentiating by task?” answered by Greg Ashman, who looks at TALIS data which seems to show a negative correlation between differentiation and maths scores.

WRITING AND STORY-TELLING

“Why are they doing so much writing in your classroom?” answered by Pritesh Raichura, Ben Rogers, Ruth Walker, Tarjinder Gill, Jasper Green and Judith Hochman in the Writing in Science Symposium, an amazing collection of works on why writing should play a crucial role in the classroom.

“How can student writing help me to learn more about what they’ve learned?” answered by Tom Millichamp, who uses ideas from The Writing Revolution to delve into student understanding.

“Why would story telling help students retain more information?” answered by Ven Popov, explaining why research scientists are wary of story telling in their writing but why they shouldn’t be.

“How can I introduce stories to the classroom?” answered by Bill Wilkinson with a link to the #sciencestories project to encourage story-telling in the classroom.

COMPETITION AND GAMES

“Why isn’t competition always a good thing?” answered by Adam Boxer, discussing the notion that ‘boys will like it if you make it a competition’.

“Why aren’t you playing more games?” answered by Mark Enser, showing how inequality might be increased in the name of engagement.


OUTSIDE OF A LESSON:

MARKING

“What does a sensible marking policy look like?” answered by Adam Boxer by giving out his department’s marking policy.

“Why are we marking?” answered by Gethyn Jones, clarifying the difference between feedback and marking and which is useful for students.

“What is whole-class feedback?” answered by Andrew Percival.

“How can I make whole-class feedback fit with my school’s marking policy?” answered by Ruth Walker who shows how her marking can tick a lot of the boxes that a school’s typical marking policy would have.

“Why aren’t books a good proxy for learning?” answered by Sarah Barker, who points out the issue with book scrutinies.

DATA AND TARGET GRADES

“What is my data showing me: progress or attainment or something else?” answered by Matthew Benyohai who shows the stupidity behind colourful trackers and why he uses bee-swarm plots instead.

“How should I be using assessment data?” answered in many blogs by Matthew Benyohai.

“What should I be doing with target grades?” answered by Ben Newmark, who explains why they don’t help the learning process.

“I need more convincing on this target grades thing, can you give me anything else to read?” Adam Robbins kindly obliges.

“What should I do after a mock exam?” answered by Adam Boxer, using a bit of assessment theory and knowledge of schema to rethink the post-exam strategy.

HOMEWORK

“Why aren’t you setting more projects?” answered by Adam Boxer, arguing through an example that grand projects only act to highlight inequality.

“Does flipped learning ever work?” answered by Bill Wilkinson, who uses some of the cognitive science basics to make flipped learning work for him and his students.

STUDYING AND REVISION

“How can I explain to students how to study?” answered by an article in Scientific American, explaining the basics behind retrieval, interleaving, spacing and elaboration, as well as what no to do.


MISCELLANEOUS OTHER QUESTIONS

“Why do you have your windows open?” answered by Jess Staufenberg.

Rosenshine in action…

Putting theory into practice

CPD Books

A Great blog from Mark Esner (Heathfield School) on how he is using Rosenshine in the classroom: Full blog page is here https://heathfieldteachshare.wordpress.com/2018/04/23/putting-theory-into-practice/

I love a good teaching and learning book, as anyone who has popped into my classroom or tried to find something on my desk can attest. I also really enjoy attending research conferences (I’m speaking at ResearchEd Durrington this weekend and ResearchEd national conference in London in the Autumn) and find leafing through a research paper relaxing. I’m weird like that.

One question I am sometimes asked is what difference all this reading, tweeting and writing about education actually makes in the classroom. I’d like to take one example of a research review and show how I have applied it.

Rosenshine’s Principles of Instruction (2012)

Barak Rosenshine’s article may be the most useful thing ever published on teaching and learning. It takes research from cognitive science in how people learn, the cognitive supports that make this process easier and from looking at highly effective teachers in the classroom. He suggests that excellent teaching contains ten key characteristics.

1. Begin each lesson with a short review of previous learning

Starting a lesson by recapping things the class have already learnt means we can take advantage of the testing effect, which suggests that every time we recall information we make it easier to access it again in the future. It also means we have somewhere to hook new information so that it fits with what we already know, we start to build a more complex picture of the subject.

I do this by ensuring that the start of the lesson is dedicated to recall. This will often be a short quiz (10 questions on one slide and answers on the next) or one longer question to which they need to apply what they learnt previously. I make sure that these questions link to the topic that we will be about to cover. For example, before a lesson on rainforest management I’ll include questions on low pressure weather systems, the nutrient cycle and sustainability. These are concepts they will use in the lesson and strengthening recall now will support their working memory later.

2. Present new material in short steps with students practicing after each step. 

When I started teaching we were encouraged to limit the amount of time we spent at the front of the class (I am sure that most of us will have been told the myth about pupils only remembering 10% of what they are told but 90% of what they discover for themselves) and to set long open ended projects for pupils to complete during the lesson. This would allow them to explore the task for themselves and construct their own meaning. This form of minimal instruction “discovery learning” leaves pupils swamped with information they struggle to process and lacking the guidance to make sense of it. This influential paper by Clark, Sweller & Kirschner (2012) suggests that pupils benefit from very clear and explicit instruction from an expert rather than the expert simply facilitating their discovery.

Rosenshine’s research found that the most effective teachers spoke for a total of 23 minutes in a 40 minute maths lesson compared to just 11 minutes from the least effective. Effective teachers used the extra time to explain new material very clearly, give lots of examples and asked lots of questions (see below). This time wasn’t in a block but spread over the lesson, interspersed with deliberate practice from the pupils.

This research has made me much more comfortable standing at the front and being a “sage on the stage”. I use a clear Input – Application model of teaching where I talk the class through something they need to know, give them examples, use analogies, show model answers before giving them a short task to do. They still carry out longer pieces independent work but only at the end of the phase, once I am sure the building blocks are in place.

3. Ask a large number of questions and check the responses of all students. 

Rosenshine suggests that not only do the most effective teachers ask a lot of questions, they also ask different questions; they are more likely to ask questions about the process that they have used to work out the answer. Questioning allows pupils to practice using the information they have been taught. It also allows us to receive feedback on their understanding and correct any misconceptions.

In the classroom I try to ensure that I target questions carefully (rather than using a random generator) and ask follow up questions. These might include

  • Why do you think that would be the right answer?
  • How does that link to what we know about X?
  • Can you explain that but include a reference to Y?
  • How would you know if that was the right answer?

I try to make sure that I receive feedback from as many pupils as possible by asking pupils to discuss it in a pair before sharing, using mini-white boards and by continuing to ask questions to small groups during the lesson. I try to think about the feedback I need from the class and focus my questions on common misconceptions and threshold concepts (See Meyer & Land 2003 and this piece on Threshold Concepts).

4. Provide models

Models and worked examples help to provide cognitive support to pupils so that they can focus on applying what they have learnt rather than concentrating on the form of the answer. They also allow pupils to see very clearly what your expectations are and allows you to set the bar high.

Over the last couple of years I have started using more and more models in the classroom. I try to show pupils examples of excellent answers and then unpick this answer with them so that they understand the criteria that makes this an excellent piece of geography. I also try to make sure I model things carefully where I know there are often misconceptions. Addressing the problem before it appears in their work.

Over time, it is important to remove the scaffolding that pupils get from modelling so that they can complete the task for themselves. I try to do this in a structured way. When they first try to draw a climate graph I will draw one with them and talk them through the process before giving them one to complete for themselves. The second time I remind them of the key points to remember and remind them of common mistakes before leaving them to complete it themselves whilst I circulate and support as needed. By the time they try it for a third time I expect them to be able to complete it with minimal modeling.

5. Guide student practice

As mentioned above, pupils benefit from guided instruction and having material presented in small chunks. It is important that they do something with this material as soon as possible. Using the information will mean they have to think hard about it and, as Daniel Willingham explains, memory is the residue of thought. It is also important that this practice is monitored. Some feedback, especially feedback on processes, might be best off delayed but feedback on the task, on tackling misconceptions, needs to be tackled immediately to prevent the error being embedded. Practice doesn’t make perfect, but it does make permanent. For more on different types of feedback and feedback during practice see Hattie and Timperley (2007) The Power of Feedback.

I try to apply this to my own classroom by making sure that lessons are built around answering “fertile questions” (See Benson and Knight 2013). These big questions are then broken down into the small steps that pupils need to take in order to answer them. This naturally encourages the lesson to be broken into smaller chunks with a focus on applying what they have learnt to a problem they have to think hard about.

I also make sure that I am monitoring the room as pupils are working and pick up on misconceptions as they happen. I am much more likely to stop the lesson to address a problem and reteach something than I used to be.

6. Check for student understanding

Rosenshine explains that the most effective teachers are always checking for student understanding whereas the less effective would ask “any questions?” before moving on. When we are building knowledge we are taking new information and linking it to other things that we know. This is the point where misconceptions can develop and information is mis-linked. For example, pupils learn that global temperatures are increasing and link that to what they have heard about there being a hole in the ozone layer.

In the classroom, I try to check for understanding by asking pupils to apply what they have learnt to a new situation. For example, if pupils have learnt how the nutrient cycle works in the rainforest and have learnt about the conditions in the desert, they should be able to apply one thing to the other and describe what the nutrient cycle will be like.

I am wary of plenaries at the end of a lesson to check for understanding for two reasons. Firstly, checking for understanding that close to the end of the lesson risks the chance of just getting mimicry rather than genuine learning. Secondly, the end of the lesson is too late to do anything about misconceptions you may learn about. If you check for understanding as they leave the room and discover most are walking out thinking the hole in the ozone layer is responsible for global warming, what then?

7. Obtain a high success rate

Following on from the points above, Rosenshine is clear that teachers  need to ensure that pupils really understand something before working independently on it. The idea that pupils need to be secure in a small step before moving on to the next one is sometimes called mastery learning. Most work on this seems to come from the context of maths where knowledge is structured hierarchically with a clear progression in the subject’s difficulty. Geography, and many other subjects, are organised cumulatively whereby pupils gain a greater breadth of  study over time but difficulty only tends to increase between key stages.

There are, however, areas where I have been able to apply some of this idea. As mentioned above, I am more likely now to stop a lesson to reteach something that clearly hasn’t worked and to set homework tasks designed to fill very specific gaps in what a pupil can do.

8. Provide scaffolds for difficult tasks

This point overlaps with that requiring the use of models. Scaffolding can take many forms but can be thought of as anything that lessens the cognitive burden of the task. This might include providing prompts to start the lesson, talking through the answer yourself out loud to show your own way of approaching it or providing  checklists for a task to make the expectations clear.

One way I increasingly use scaffolding is through the use of diagrams and images. As I explain an idea to the class I make notes on the white board, draw flow diagrams and pictures to illustrate the key points. This serves two functions.

  1. Pupils take information in on both a visual and auditory channel. Both spoken and written text uses the auditory channel and reading out a text as they are reading it themselves can make it more difficult to learn. However, talking over images can strengthen recall. This is the principle of dual coding (See Mayer & Anderson 1992 – The instructive animation)
  2. It also acts a reminder of what has been said. Spoken words are transient and too many ideas overwhelm the working memory and can’t then be applied to the task. By leaving a visual record of my explanation and thought process I am allowing them to use part of my schema to support their work and build their own.

9. Require and monitor independent practice

Most of the preceding 8 principles are about effective direct instruction. It is important however for pupils to have the opportunity to apply what they have learnt. Rosenshine suggests that pupils work best when the teacher is circulating the room and monitoring their work and when there is an opportunity for pupils to share their work with those around them.

As mentioned above, I tend to phrase my lesson as a “fertile question” that needs to be answered. This question is answered independently using what they have learnt. During this time I stand back more than during the knowledge building phase but look for pupils who may be struggling or who I know might be having a problem. I find that my classes work in near silence but I always remind them that they can talk but it needs to be “A whisper, to their neighbour about the work”. This allows them to check a point or receive feedback on what they have said from someone else more quickly than I am able to do so.

10. Engage students in weekly or monthly review

This principle returns us to the beginning. Pupils need the chance to review what they have learnt and to consider how it fits into a bigger picture. The better they can do this the more load is taken off their working memory as they can recall the information they need to undertake a task from their long term memory.

I try to support this regular review in a number of ways.

  • I sit with a pupil during a lesson and talk back over their work from the last few weeks. We look at the progress they have made and discuss what they have learnt.
  • We use learning checklists and knowledge organisers to help them see how what they have learnt fits into a bigger picture.
  • I make sure that the regular quizzes at the start of the lesson goes back over previous topics and not just material from the last lesson.

Conclusion

When re-reading Rosenshine’s principles again I am struck by just how simple it all sounds. But this shouldn’t be surprising. Teaching, at its core is simple. Recap previous information, input of new information, apply it, test and respond. However, doing these simple things well is complex and deserves some consideration.

Mark Enser

Geography

How to have a calm, controlled and effective classroom.

Great blog from @ASTsupportAAli for both new and experienced staff.

Here are our top tips to having a controlled and calm classroom.

I tweeted the below thread out a week or so ago, I wanted to expand on the comments and highlight the work the leadership team has been doing to establish effective T&L and behaviour and culture in our school.

Routines:

Establish a way of doing EVERYTHING.

From entering to leaving the room, to handing out worksheets, books, resources and so on. There should be a procedure. A well practised, set of methods to getting those things done. They should be reminded every time those things are going to be done to ensure they are done smoothly.

We line our students up, outside their classroom, greet them, inform/remind/emphasise the routine on entry and expectations and they enter our classrooms. The first 5 minutes of a lesson are crucial, create the environment where the expectation is to learn.

DNA:

Every lesson should begin with one. A Do Now Activity.

This should usually be a talking or thinking one, as the books are being handed/taken out. Get your students thinking about your learning instantly, give them a challenge as soon as they pass the threshold.

Let them know in your lesson, every second is a learning opportunity.

Screen Shot 2018-11-17 at 07.24.14

My procedure for handing out books is that I always ask 5/6 people to hand out 5/6 books each so the books are handed out quickly. As soon as you get your book, They have a task to do.

This is writing down the title (we call it a Big/Learning Question.) The date. And THUD in the margin.

Title

Handwriting

Underline

Date

Screen Shot 2018-11-17 at 07.24.38

Start your lesson with a THUD. Give the responsibility to the students. Give them the criteria and expect it. I wander round with a red pen. I place a red dot next to anybody’s work that is missing something, or something is not done correctly. Students then instantly correct.

Students should also underline off last lessons work, and start reading what was covered, to aid with their recall check, if they have finished the DNA.

Praise:

Ensure you engage with proximal praise at this point.

Notice who has done what they should be doing rather than who hasn’t. I personally use my VIP method here, and hand out a cushion to students who are doing the right thing! See here.

If a student hasn’t started the DNA or opened their book when they’ve got it, don’t ask

“Why haven’t you done what I have asked!”

Just state the instruction again, with a thank you.

“Sylviana open your book, write in the big question and THUD. Thank you.”

Continue with proximal praise.

DON’T overpraise basic expectations. Well done & thank you for things that are simply required is fine. But only praise formally when students have exceeded (their) expectations.

When you want the classes attention; do it in the same way.

Notice the bright spots!

Attention:

Have a system, be it a countdown or count up!

We use a 5-0 countdown system. The Pivotal way. Include instructions in between each number. For example.

“Right, when you’re ready. 5,

Facing the front 4.

Thanks to those listening 3,

Pens down and looking up 2,

OK, great let’s begin 1…”

Silence should and is always expected at this point.

I use Mary Myatt’s method of ‘When you’re ready’ to alert students attention.

Retrieval- Education is the best therapy:

Start the lesson with a 5 question recall check.

No matter how many times they’ve done it. Remind everybody of the routine or procedure for your recall checks. I will ask students-

How many questions? 5 questions Sir.

How long do you have? 5 minutes sir.

How do you answer the questions? In Full sentences sir.

What does that mean? It means including the question in our answers sir.

What do you do if you can’t remember the answer? If unknown write down question & leave space. Then we will fill in the answers later sir.

Ensure there is at LEAST one answer that EVERY student can answer! This is to enable students to instantly feel like they can participate in the lesson.

Let the students know how long they have by using a timer. I have now phased this out, for some classes, as I want them to practice using the clock to manage their time.

Continue to use the countdown from then onwards. Any time you want the classes attention, use your countdown.

Stand up, be seen, be clear.

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Instructions:

When explaining a task, after you have explained ask at least 2 students to explain back what they’ve been asked to do. Then still go over to any other students who you think may need another round of explanation and re-explain! Don’t get upset by that fact!

  1. Every task should have a sequenced set of instructions.
  2. Every task should have a time frame. Ideally both available, visually.
  3. Every task should have the opportunity for you to check/model/support/reaffirm. That could be sat at your desk.

Screen Shot 2018-11-17 at 07.41.06

All your visuals should be clear. The font should be large enough to read. Avoid confusing backgrounds.

Use bold to emphasise words and keep colour coding consistent.

Organisation:

Here, we do not cut and stick sheets into our books. We hole punch every book and treasury tag the sheets in. This way sheets can be used for multiple lessons, without students flipping backwards and forwards and if a student misses a lesson, there work can be added in, with ease. It also saves time!

 

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Image by Heather Mary James (@LDNHumsTeacher)

 

See here for more details!

Noise Levels:

And be clear about expected noise level from/for each and every task. Spy Talk, Low Flow, Formal Normal. If they can’t differentiate, then revert to silence.

Again proximal praise at this point, but not just for doing the right thing.

Screen Shot 2018-11-17 at 07.44.34

Do not be worried, or afraid or insisting on Zero Noise or Silence for a task.

Anchoring Effect:

Do you give students unconscious opt outs? Instead of saying:

Right here’s an quick, easy, simple task.

or

Here’s a challenging, hard task.

After the quick, easy, simple task, there could be a few students that thought, wow, that was meant to be quick, easy and simple and I could not do it! Or, a few that thought, why am I wasting my time with easy work. Those students could then be put off the next task, which is more challenging and harder.

Instead say:

Here’s task 1 and here’s task 2.

Reduce the chance for students to be anchored out of a task. Avoid using language that may make students feel like a task is unachievable.

Expectations:

Remind students of what you expect, by explaining why it’s beneficial. Be clear about expectations and beliefs. Have high expectations and clear beliefs about students progress and intended goals. Let students know everybody is going to complete all the tasks and you will help WHEN needed.

I expect calm, structure and respect so we can learn as much as possible, so you can concentrate and challenge yourself. So we can all feel the benefits of school. That’s the language I use.

If a student is off task, ask them,

“Eric, are you clear about the task I’ve asked you to get on with?”

“Sebastian have you made a start? Can I give you any suggestions?”

Avoid,

“Why aren’t you working? Doing as I asked.”

If this is repeated.

“Alisha can you come and show me your work pls.”

If noise levels get too high, then knock it down to silence. If people talk whilst the task should be completed in silence, speak to those students individually.

Use mini whiteboards and post it notes to attempt work before writing it down in books. (Sometimes.) Allow students to talk through an answer first too. As Mart Myatt says, writing floats on a sea of talk!

Your seating plan is vital. Another thread about that, another time.

Displays:

What do your displays say about you? Your classroom? Are they too busy? Are they updated? Do they support learning. Here, we all use the same colour background and border colours to not make them too ‘loud.’ We are given dedicated time to update them and encourage them to be used as learning tools. As guides to help with recall checks.

Do not afraid to be you in your classroom. I share a few photos of my baby boy, by my desk. Showing students the diversity of us, might be the only diversity they hear/see/feel.

Being “strict” doesn’t mean you are boring or unliked.

It doesn’t mean you shout all day.

It means you have clear routines, procedures and possibly an assertive tone of voice when need be. Don’t fear breaking off task every one in a while to simply have a little joke/giggle with your class!

You will also notice I have not used the word relationships in the entire blog, this does not mean I feel we can have quiet, calm, controlled, effective classrooms without relationships, I just feel whilst we can achieve the above we are creating and building those relationships. I have written about relationships here too.

Remember, you may be really great with all of the different types of students, but ensuring you follow the schools behaviour policy is vital. Whether it is needed for you or not, it helps the teachers that it is needed for. Consistency in approach is vital. Students should not have to second guess what each teacher will do. It should be clear.

Also, do not feel you have ‘nothing to learn’ from those who have well ordered, controlled classrooms, just because ‘they can do it.’ I feel there are the above characteristics in their rooms which enable the calm and control. Go check it out?

Planning Scripted Instruction: A ‘Sort-Of’ Guide…

Have you ever tried a scripted lesson ?

“There is order in what we wish to teach, just as there is order in the pattern observed in clouds, sea shells, or traffic moving down a freeway. Our task is to discover it and to communicate this order. If we do it properly, the development of the skills will seem so easy that it might strike the naive observer as “cheating”” (Siegfried Engelmann) 

I started experimenting with scripted instruction this year. From the outset, it felt like cheating. Just telling students the answer, testing them on it and then asking them to apply their learning felt like a rebellious act. Yet the evidence before me suggested that it was working. Whilst I do not want to suggest that Direct Instruction could be all things to all people, it has transformed my teaching. In this blog post, I will share some of the principles that underpin the planning of some of the DI inspired scripts that I have used in the classroom.

The most striking difference between a ‘normal’ lesson and a DI lesson is that the latter uses “concise teacher scripts and choral student responses” (Barbash, 2012, p.24). Many teachers may balk at the idea of standing at the front of the room imparting facts and hearing students chant these facts back verbatim. Yet, if it’s good enough for the most effective teaching method ever invented, then it’s more than good enough for me. Yes, it is weird to teach from a script to begin with. Sure, students may be initially hesitant to chant in unison. However, there is something unique about seeing 32 students in a classroom understanding a concept and working hard in silence on a topic that you are sure they are achieving success in.

Engelmann’s scripts had the benefit of 50 years of experience, meticulous design and field testing before they were published. There are some fantastic examples available for Mathematics, English, and the social sciences online. As a caveat to everything I am about to share, my scripts are merely imitations of Engelmann’s work. They cannot, and should not, be held up as an example of his work. Nonetheless, I hope they exemplify the application of some of Engelmann’s principles in a more conventional classroom setting.

Typically I have used scripted instruction in content heavy lessons. For example, teaching about the adaptations of flora and fauna to Arctic environments. Alternatively, teaching about the impacts of deforestation in the rainforest. I have not used scripted instruction for teaching ‘skills’ such as interpreting a bar graph. That is not to say one could not design instruction for teaching skills, Engelmann’s work shows that you can, Instead, the context of my planning is that it is to teach content rich lessons.

Some examples of these scripts are available here: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1y8l5zY5ZHV0tcAemfBE7pIRzoI6fnws-i7rl9f-_uG8/edit?usp=sharing

1. Start at the end

Every lesson that I have used DI style scripts in have a clear question defining the lesson. For example, ‘why did world population explode?’. The outcome of all of my lessons is for students to produce a extended piece of writing to answer the question for the lesson. The planning process will begin with me writing an exemplary model answer to that question. For example, students will need to know that world population exploded because of the control of death rates. They will also need to know that we have controlled death rates by reducing deaths by war, famine and disease.

Having written a model answer I will identify ten pieces of content that students need to know in order to produce a good quality piece of work. These constitute the objective facts and knowledge that I will design my instructional script around. To return to the quote which began this post, this constitutes giving ”order in what we wish to teach”. There is clearly a debate on which knowledge should be taught. However, my experience with DI is that there is a limit to how much knowledge can be taught in an hour so that the students ‘get it’. Therefore, choices have to be made on which knowledge is the most important to teach. Whilst ten pieces of knowledge sounds arbitrary, I have found it to be enough that students can remember it all and apply it properly in a relevant context.

Below is an example of ten core pieces of information for a science lesson script.

better 10 facts
An example of ten facts to base scripted instruction on

2. Atomise the knowledge and chain it together

Once I have a list of ten pieces of ‘content’ for students to learn, I try and break it down into easily digestible chunks. For example, I may intend to teach that some plants in the rainforest have a waxy surface known as a drip tip to drain water so that they do not die. An example of these chunks would be “one example of a plant in the rainforest is a drip tip. Drip tips have a waxy surface. Drip tips have a waxy surface to drain water. Drip tips drain water to avoid rotting and dying”. These instructions would then have simple expected learner responses. For example, “what type of surface does a drip tip have?” in which the expected response was “waxy”. This ‘atomisation’ draws out each important piece of information for the learner to memorise.

Throughout, the expected student response is kept as simple as possible. As Engelmann states in The Theory of Instruction: “if the statement is too long for the learner to repeat, we present only part of the statement at a time”. Getting students to chant “they are waxy so water drains off of the leaf” is unlikely to be successful. Breaking long statements up aids working memory by reducing the amount of information students have to hold. In addition, it keeps the pace of the lesson high, which is an essential part of DI. As is exemplified below, students are then given the chance to build this chain back up by explaining to their partner how a drip tip is adapted.

Atomised and broken up
Instructional sequence on drip tips

3. Be economical and consistent in your language

The first two of Shepard Barbash’s rules are ‘be clear’ and ‘be efficient’. The atomisation of content aids this process. However, one method of efficiency is the be consistent in your use of wording.

One example of economy of language is using the same phrase to indicate student response. In the case of my scripts, I will always use the phrase “okay, your turn”. Another way of improving efficiency is the phrase questions in a similar way that you have phrased the instruction. For example, if the information is presented as “the drip tips waxy surface helps water to drip off the leaf”. The question is best phrased as “what does the drip tips waxy surface help water to do”. A less optimal phrasing may be “why do drip tips have waxy surfaces”. Whilst the learner response is essentially the same “to drip water”, the latter example requires a deeper level of complex thinking. In my experience, this deeper complexity can come at a later stage in the lesson. In the initial presentation of information, consistency and simplicity is key.

A second way of improving efficiency is by consistently re-emphasising important pieces of information. For example, one way of presenting a drip tip is to point at a picture and say “some leaves have drip tips. These help them to drip water off.” However, there exists an additional opportunity to re-emphasise the name of the plant. Instead, a more optimal instruction would be “Some leaves have drip tips. Drip tips help water to drip off the leaf”. This is a strategy used later in a script. For example, “draining the water stops the leaf rotting. If the leaf rotted then it would die” this is a more optimal example than “draining the water stops rotting. If this happened it would die”.  Alongside the inflection and pacing of instruction, consistently re-emphasising this information can aid student recall.

4. Apply Engelmann’s ‘three level’ strategy 

Engelmann’s three level strategy is very similar to small scale interleaving. Within the instructional sequence, information is constantly re-tested, even after learners have given a positive response.

Three level strategy
Engelmann’s three level strategy

The strategy starts at level 1, which is the easiest, and progresses to level 3, the hardest. In this example, the circled A constitutes an expected student response. For example, each time there is a circled A, students may respond to the question “what percentage of Earth do rainforests cover?” with the answer “7%”.

Level 1 may represent the very first introduction of the piece of content. To progress to Level 2, students have to provide the correct answer to a question straight after the presentation of the information.

Level 2 is the next level of complexity. Students are presented with new information, tested on that new information but then also tested on information that they had previously been exposed to. An example of Level 2 is available below, with students asked to identify the rainforest coverage of Earth and the location of rainforests straight after being tested on other newly presented facts. Throughout the instructional sequence, each set of facts are repeatedly interwoven to aid Level 2 testing.

Level 2 better
Level 2 testing

Level 3 is the final level of complexity. After being exposed to each instruction of atomised information, students are asked to review all of the information at the end. This has given them time to forget the information and places a greater complexity demand by requiring learners to switch between lots of newly learned information.

Reviewed answer
Level 3 testing

If students can answer all of these questions at the end of the instructional sequence, then the lesson can move from scripted instruction and choral response to individual level practice drills and extended writing.

5. Plan the application of learning

Once the instructional sequence has finished, I move my students rapidly into a silent 10-12 question quiz on the content. The vast majority of time, if there has been loud and convincing choral response to all of the recap questions, then at least 90% of the students will achieve 90% on the quiz. If the students haven’t done this, then it is likely that there is a problem in either the planning or delivery of the script.

qui
Individual written quiz following oral recap

Once students have achieved over 90% in the individual level quiz, then can then apply this new learning into the extended writing that had served as the basis of the planning in the first place.

task.png
An example of a longer extended writing task

6. Remember, it’s just an experiment

In all of this instruction, it is important to remember all of the caveats surrounding scripted instruction. It is a difficult and time consuming process to go through. In addition, as Engelmann himself emphasised repeatedly, it will often go wrong in a myriad of stunning unexpected ways.

However, if you were interested in planning your own script then I hope this can be of some use. Feel free to get in touch and tweet me @s_hall_teach if you wanted to share any thoughts, ideas or scripts.

Examples of some of my scripts are available here: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1y8l5zY5ZHV0tcAemfBE7pIRzoI6fnws-i7rl9f-_uG8/edit?usp=sharing

Rosenshine – practical examples!

Ten Principles of Instruction- Rosenshine, B. (2012) Explained from a classroom perspective via @ASTsupportAAli

Here are the principles in their entirety from the 2012 paper- Have them open as you read through the below…

1- Begin Each Lesson With A Short Review of Previous Learning– Start each lesson with a 5 question recall check. Give students 5 minutes to complete this. If they don’t know the answer, they write the question down and leave a space to fill in the answer later. You could do also do these 5 questions via multiple choice questions. Ensure you provide 2 plausible answers with 1 misconception. These must be high frequency and low stakes. Meaning you don’t take grades in, or ask students to share their scores out loud.

2- Present New Material In Short Steps With Students Practicing After Each Step. Explain tasks fully, ask students to repeat back the instructions given. Ask them to explain why you’re doing that task. Then work through examples of the completed task, model the answers. Work on items in front of your class under the visualiser, while they listen. Be OK with talking and explaining. Then get students to do. The check.

3- Ask A Large Number of Questions and Check the Responses of All StudentsAsk lots of probing questions. ‘What if?’ ‘How do you know?’ Vary your questioning techniques. Hands up. Hands down. Add, Build, Challenge. Gadfly questioning; socratic questions. Plan for your questions. Do not ask questions before using a random question generator. Share the fact that answers to questions are for everybody, and therefore everybody should list and be ready to add, build, or challenge given answer. When students answer a question, ask them if they are sure, how sure and how do they know.

4- Provide Models– Vary the way you present modelled answers. Students should know that it isn’t solely how much you write that earns you more marks. Ensure students see the process of a modelled answer. Annotate and break down examples of completed tasks. When giving grades back to a class, use aspirational marking and only give the marks off the next grade students are, rather than their current grade.

5- Guide Student Practice– Instead of objectives or intentions for lessons try setting Big Questions- enable steps to answer those big questions. Enable the discussion to take place that breaks the big questions down. Practice and repeat. Allow for live marking to tackle misconceptions immediately, do this collectively if you can? Whole class feedback could support this. 

6- Check for Student Understanding– Don’t just take a blanket response from the class to the questions. ‘Are we OK with this?’ ‘Any questions’ and so on. Enable enough time in your lessons for the students task to be checked for their understanding. How do you know they are good with moving onto to their next step in learning?

7- Obtain a High Success Rate– Enable students to have understood something before moving on. Think about teaching and reapplying concepts in 3 different contexts for true understanding and longer memory building. I call it ‘re-mixing‘ lessons. Students should not say, we have done this, unless, they have learnt it!

8- Provide Scaffolds for Difficult Tasks– These can be provided in a variety of ways- think about the concept of Dual Coding. Do you explain visually alongside your written and oral instructions? Do you have a consistent way of dual coding to avoid cognitive overload in lessons? Also have you considered linking abstract concepts with concrete representations. Are you able to bring something obscure into something tangible?

9- Require and Monitor Independent Practice– Circulate the room, check over tasks. Monitor as work is being completed. Don’t be afraid to ask for tasks to be completed in silence. Do not worry about getting students to edit tasks. I prefer the term edit, rather than re-do. Try Red Dot Marking?

10- Engage Students in Weekly or Monthly Review– Remind students you have not just taught them from last lesson, but from the start of the year. Remind them that every lessons learning is vital. Think about the spacing effect in your curriculum . How do you enable recall. Do you refresh on core concepts, skills and important threshold concepts throughout the year? What is your assessment cycle like? Quality first teaching is preceded by quality first planning.

Finally read this blog by on Rosenshine- and blog too- They have both allowed me to summarise my thoughts. Thank you!

Click on the tweet below to read my original thread. 

 

Download an amazing visual by Oliver Caviglioli here

Articles Worth Reading – a brilliant resource!

A fantastic collection of research from Chris Moyse – TLC Educuation Services Limited

Research articles worth reading

Picture27

 

 

 

https://www.dropbox.com/s/9733p2rkvmzxkq3/The_Science_of_Learning.pdf?dl=0

Picture13

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.dropbox.com/s/hrlmoqjf7t29di4/classroom-instruction-that-works_pdf.pdf?dl=0

Picture6https://www.dropbox.com/s/dqb1f052crkugsc/3_improving-students-learning-with-effective-learning-techniques-promising-directions-from-cognitive-educational-psychology.pdf?dl=0

Picture7

https://www.dropbox.com/s/gqf7wj3qosfopri/Strengthening%20the%20Student%20Toolbox.pdf?dl=0

Picture16https://www.dropbox.com/s/lzq6i4gbokjlh1y/NCTQ_Learning_About_Learning_1-16.pdf?dl=0

Picture36

https://www.dropbox.com/s/sgxet7ew4heg61c/Principles%20of%20Instruction%20-%20Rosenshine.pdf?dl=0

Picture14

https://www.dropbox.com/s/m094rmnk9y4o2q0/willingham_0.pdf?dl=0

Picture32https://www.dropbox.com/s/8foxlmek5crz080/bjork-creating-desirable-difficulties-to-enhance-learning.pdf?dl=0

Picture29https://www.dropbox.com/s/mns8kd14qxh2rdm/can-teachers-increase-students-self-control-willingham_3.pdf?dl=0

Picture5

https://www.dropbox.com/s/7107xgrk6wnoqxn/kirschner_Sweller_Clark.pdf?dl=0

Picture37https://www.dropbox.com/s/oldaulzaybik4c0/DGT%20Full%20report.pdf?dl=0

Picture30https://www.dropbox.com/s/c0bvx8gnz1l2zus/EricssonDeliberatePracticePR93a.pdf?dl=0

Picture1https://www.dropbox.com/s/4bvm41msvsj0s3y/whatworks.pdf?dl=0

Picture39https://www.dropbox.com/s/qk2oeqxsl90rhr7/Working-memory-and-learning-diffculties.pdf?dl=0

Picture22https://www.dropbox.com/s/jsk77di5ndmbylt/top-twenty-principles.pdf?dl=0

Picture23https://www.dropbox.com/s/1u78f4pi4fss5i0/Ruth%20Clark%20Graphics%20for%20Learning.pdf?dl=0

Picture31

https://www.dropbox.com/s/gow1fmv1wln60j7/graham-nuthall-2001-the-cultural-myths-and-the-realities-of-teaching-and-learning.pdf?dl=0

Picture25

https://www.dropbox.com/s/gogdw9bv3shertp/Grit%20JPSP.pdf?dl=0

Picture21

https://www.dropbox.com/s/bdyqcy8uagmgxpi/Resources_FiveDirectInstruct.pdf?dl=0

Picture20

https://www.dropbox.com/s/umsnwxbxs86hkez/organizing-instruction-to-improve-student-learning-pashler-2007.pdf?dl=0

 

Picture18

https://www.dropbox.com/s/m0h3s5hv0qet8y3/Know_Thy_Impact_Visible_Learning_in_Theory_and_Practice.pdf?dl=0

Picture2

https://www.dropbox.com/s/u1ymhxyj00358eo/How-people-learn.pdf?dl=0

Picture28

https://www.dropbox.com/s/l3ykajytkms7pza/hattie-and-timperly-the-power-of-feedback.pdf?dl=0

Picture33

https://www.dropbox.com/s/3xagd2qsooyux7c/soderstrom-bjork-learning-vs-performance.pdf?dl=0

Picture8

https://www.dropbox.com/s/2c8r7y1ohhm39ba/35pdk_97_7.pdf?dl=0

Picture3

https://www.dropbox.com/s/ndgp8vc8zxvwtdi/what_works_best.pdf?dl=0

 

Picture35

https://www.dropbox.com/s/bm1hgn03ypm1qzx/carless-differing-perceptions-in-the-feedback-process.pdf?dl=0

Picture34

https://www.dropbox.com/s/obcuwhhyvp2hi5p/eef-a-review-of-educational-interventions-and-approaches-informed-by-neuroscience.pdf?dl=0

rwrwr

https://www.dropbox.com/s/o4klh8ifxx8mexz/fpsyg-07-00350.pdf?dl=0

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https://www.dropbox.com/s/69c8r1hd2tlqq2a/growth-mindset-and-grit-lit-review.pdf?dl=0

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https://www.dropbox.com/s/8jzlmdzgelek837/Hanushek%2BRivkin%202006%20HbEEdu%202.pdf?dl=0

wwxw

https://www.dropbox.com/s/hd2sk8dja34h0uw/Learning%20by%20viewing%20versus%20learning%20by%20doing%20-%20Clark%20Mayer.pdf?dl=0

xwxex

https://www.dropbox.com/s/qlybn2elpoua33t/Richland_RBjork_Finley_Linn_2005.pdf?dl=0

wx1wx

https://www.dropbox.com/s/8uxwf049zkhesfn/usefulness-of-brief-instruction-in-reading-willingham.pdf?dl=0

wdzwdxw

https://www.dropbox.com/s/cppqpvwm0df8ly5/what-is-developmentally-appropriate-practice-willingham_1.pdf?dl=0

c2c2r

https://www.dropbox.com/s/5oy6vstcebstydv/Teacher%20retention.pdf?dl=0

ecwvw

https://www.dropbox.com/s/f9g0cafsa3tstuz/9_ways_to_reduce_CL.pdf?dl=0

ef2f2

https://www.dropbox.com/s/pgdz5nablyic6p8/ryan-deci-self-determination-theory-and-the-facilitation-of-intrinsic-motivation-social-development-and-well-being.pdf?dl=0

wxdee

https://www.dropbox.com/s/8n5a9lokgfr4083/06_understanding_memory.pdf?dl=0

xwxewx

https://www.dropbox.com/s/rdapwgk8b8y6h3q/Classroom%20guide%20working%20memory.pdf?dl=0

aaaa

https://www.dropbox.com/s/hv89cxo541mko6o/teachingthatsticks.pdf?dl=0

aaaaaaaa

https://www.dropbox.com/s/ende6sncj093m3b/asle2014.pdf?dl=0

xdqeqrf

https://www.dropbox.com/s/sqhk3s516w8ey5q/Teaching%20Brophy.pdf?dl=0

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https://www.dropbox.com/s/hyu68sn7w5a4wzo/RetrievalPracticeGuide.pdf?dl=0

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https://www.dropbox.com/s/e5yml4siyf57hus/power-feedback.pdf?dl=0

carfewfwt

https://www.dropbox.com/s/dwf6ijlpbbo62o8/How%20children%20learn.pdf?dl=0

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https://www.dropbox.com/s/h4stsr4ctxilkd3/EEF_Metacognition_and_self-regulated_learning.pdf?dl=0

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https://www.dropbox.com/s/ecadj3oeu368sg9/Cognitive%20Load%20Theory%20-%20CESE%202017.pdf?dl=0

What is a knowledge-rich curriculum? Principle and Practice.

Tom Sherrington blog – I have found recent discussions and debates about the concept of a ‘knowledge-rich curriculum’  – or knowledge-led; knowledge-based – fascinating.   Some of this has been explored brilliantly in various blogs.  Here is a selection:

There are also numerous blogs from Michael Fordham (Knowledge and curriculum – Clio et cetera), Clare Sealy (Memory not memories – teaching for long term learning – primarytimerydotcom) or Christine Counsell: the dignity of the thing

Along with plenty of others, I initially struggled to get my ahead around this idea.  As a science teacher I’ve always felt my curriculum was packed with knowledge and, without question, I’ve seen numerous cohorts sit lots of GCSE exams year after year, each requiring significant knowledge.   However, having engaged in the debate, read Martin Robinson’s Trivium 21c and Dan Willingham’s work, I’m increasingly convinced that a knowledge-rich/focused/led/based curriculum is an important concept that we ought to embrace.

Based on my work with lots of schools in varying circumstances over the last few years, I would say that not only is this approach often different to the default practice, it offers a secure route to the rising standards that we’re continually seeking.

What is a knowledge-rich curriculum in principle?

Based on various ideas pulled from the blogs and books cited above, I would suggest there are four components:

Knowledge provides a driving, underpinning philosophy:  The grammar of each subject is given high status; the specifics of what we want students to learn matter and the traditions of subject disciplines are respected.  Skills and understanding are seen as forms of knowledge and it is understood that there are no real generic skills that can be taught outside of specific knowledge domains.  Acquiring powerful knowledge is seen as an end itself; there is a belief that we are all empowered through knowing things and that this cannot be left to chance.  There is also a sense that the creative, ’rounded and grounded’ citizens we all want to develop – with a host of strong character traits –  will emerge through being immersed in a knowledge-rich curriculum.

The knowledge content is specified in detail: Units of work are supported by statements that detail the knowledge to be learned – something that can be written down.  We do not merely want to ‘do the Romans’; we want children to gain some specified knowledge of the Romans as well as a broad overview.  We want children to know specific things about plants and about The Amazon Rainforest, WWII, Romeo and Juliet and Climate Change.  We want children to have more than a general sense of things through vaguely remembered  knowledge encounters; in addition to a range of experiences from which important tacit knowledge is gained, we want them to amass a specific body of declarative and procedural knowledge that is planned.   This runs through every phase of school: units of work are not defined by headings but by details: eg beyond ‘environmental impact of fossil fuels’, the specific impacts are detailed; beyond ‘changes to transport in Victorian Britain’, specific changes are listed.

Knowledge is taught to be remembered, not merely encountered: A good knowledge-rich curriculum embraces learning from cognitive science about memory, forgetting and the power of retrieval practice.  Our curriculum is not simply a set of encounters from which children form ad hoc memories; it is designed to be remembered in detail; to be stored in our students’ long-term memories so that they can later build on it forming ever wider and deeper schema.  This requires approaches to curriculum planning and delivery that build in spaced retrieval practice, formative low-stakes testing and plenty of repeated practice for automaticity and fluency.

Knowledge is sequenced and mapped deliberately and coherently: Beyond the knowledge specified for each unit, a knowledge-rich curriculum is planned vertically and horizontally giving thought to the optimum knowledge sequence for building secure schema – a kinetic model for materials; a timeline for historical events; a sense of the canon in literature; a sense of place; a framework for understanding cultural diversity and human development and evolution.  Attention is also given to known misconceptions and there is an understanding of the instructional tools needed to move students from novice to expert in various subject domains.

 

What is a knowledge-rich curriculum in practice?

The best way to attack this is through some examples:

Exhibit A: The Romans 

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If you imagine some Year 8s looking back to their time in Year 4, when they ‘did the Romans’, what would we want them to remember?  They might remember their trip to the ruins or the museum, the video of the gladiators and something about togas and what the soldiers looked like.  They might have a general sense that Romans had an empire and that they were around a long time ago.  In a knowledge-rich curriculum they would remember all of this but would also be expected to know the terms empire, emperor, centurion, amphitheatre, aqueduct.  They would know who Julius Caesar was; they would know a set of dates, placing the Romans in time in relation to Jesus and 1066 and be able to identify the location of key Roman sites in the UK and Europe.

All of the teaching could be supported by giving students a knowledge organiser with all the key facts on it from which various quizzes and tests are derived to support their retrieval practice.  This would be part of a long-term plan that ensured students returned to Roman history beyond Year 4; there would be an expectation that their knowledge would be built on, not left behind.

Exhibit B: Parliament Hill Science 

At this Camden school, the science department has developed a superb set of resources to support students with learning.  This is linked to their FACE It approach described in this post: FACE It. A formula for learning.   The idea is that students need to master the recall of basic science facts and concepts on the road to deep understanding and the ability to apply knowledge to problem solving.   They are provided with excellent study guides; more detailed than a knowledge organiser but stripped down from what might be in a text-book. Here’s a sample from the GCSE unit on genetics and selection.

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Significantly, students are shown the quizzes that will be used to test them on their knowledge. They are embedded in the books.  They are seen in advance so that students can learn the form in which knowledge is sometimes expressed.  It guides their learning. Students are asked to learn the material after being taught it and then take the quizzes without any study aids.  The aim is that all students get all the questions right.  That’s the point.  Their theory is that, if students can’t get the simple factual recall questions right, they have no chance of then getting the ‘application to new contexts’ questions right.

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This embedded quizzing teachers lower attaining students to build confidence, gaining important study skills and has paid dividends.  It also helps a team of teachers to focus their energies and to plan collaboratively.  It’s a Godsend for any new or non-specialist teachers too.

Exhibit C:  Trial by Ordeal

If you were teaching the GCSE History theme study on Crime and Punishment, you might show this BBC Bitesize video: https://www.bbc.com/education/clips/zrtk2hv.  It’s a great colourful story full of information, examples, facts, concepts, gory details.  You could watch it and have a wonderful engaging discussion during a lesson.  But…. some days and weeks later, what would students remember?  If you hoped students would recall as much as possible simply through absorbing information or by making their own notes, you’re going to get a wide range of responses – and for certain, the weakest students will have the worst notes and, in all likelihood, the lowest level of recall.  It’s not enough.

In a knowledge-rich approach, we don’t leave this to chance.  We spell it all out. Alongside watching the video and having the discussion, we make the note-making absolutely explicit.  These are the key facts; this what everyone must know; this is what you must all remember.  Not only this, but at least all of this:

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You might choose to train students to produce their own structured notes in a quizzable format or you might just give them the notes and focus on the retrieval practice and application.  But what you won’t do is all students to scrabble around dredging memories for half-remembered titbits of facts in the hope that they have a coherent picture of the idea of trial by ordeal.  You control it; you are precise about it.

Exhibit D:  Sequenced knowledge of Motors. 

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This is my favourite bit of teaching physics – one of them at least.  If I teach this through a  knowledge-rich approach I want to make sure that the knowledge builds securely.  Firstly, say in Year 8, through demos and practicals, I want students to build their tacit knowledge of the key phenomena:  magnetism, magnetic fields, attraction and repulsion, the idea of ‘strength’ of a magnet;  forces; current in circuits – each with direction and magnitude; the idea that phenomena interact. All of this can be highly qualitative – simply focusing on changes of direction and the simple awe and wonder thing that motors work at all in our universe. I will also secure recall and understanding of some key terminology.

Later, as part of a spiral curriculum, avoiding cognitive overload and building on prior knowledge, I need students to understand and use F = BIL and Fleming’s left hand rule.  I need them to know the terms, that magnetic flux density more or less means ‘strength’, has a symbol B and units Teslas.  I need them to learn the equation by heart and practise using it and manipulating it.  All of that needs focus – so that they think about the equation away from the buzzy distraction of a sparking, whizzing motor.  I build the sequence carefully, deliberately with a focus on practice and recall and schema-building.

Is this new? Well, yes I think it is to many teachers and in many schools –  especially once the cogscience combines with the idea of subject grammar.  It’s way beyond some reductive idea of rote learning and regurgitating facts for no purpose.   It’s about ensuring students always have a secure knowledge platform allowing them to reach the next level.  But it’s not too important (is it?) whether we did this before… some of us will; some won’t and that will depend on context, subject, phase…   The point is that we do it now.  It’s actually rather exciting….

Update: 

Since posting this, Debra Kidd has extended/deepened the ideas here in this superb post. Knowledge is just the start….    https://debrakidd.wordpress.com/2018/06/11/a-rich-curriculum/.   Read together, I think we’ve nailed it!

Another Update

This post by Michael Fordham makes perfect sense to me:  https://clioetcetera.com/2018/06/12/is-it-more-important-to-understand-than-to-know/ Understanding is really about what we know… the knowledge.  Now we’ve nailed it.